tp-link Smart Plugs with Energy Monitoring

Several years ago I picked up a TP-Link HS110 switch so that I could turn lights on and off on a schedule. It had an interesting feature of being able to monitor energy usage as well.

The HS110 has an unfortunate design that covers the second socket in a wall outlet and makes it unusable. I purchased several HS105 units over time because two can be plugged into a standard outlet with the only drawback being the extra distance the normal plug extends from the wall. The HS105 was on sale as multipack on a somewhat regular basis. The drawback of the HS105 is that it doesn’t offer energy monitoring.

I came across the HS300 power strip that offers six switched outlets plus energy monitoring for each outlet. It has a flat angled plug, allowing two devices to fit in a standard wall outlet.

Each of these devices seems to be rated at 15A (1875W) total. That should be fine, since most of the standard wall plugs they would be plugged into aren’t rated for more than that, but it’s interesting that the current handling of the largest devices is the same as the smallest.

The energy monitoring was an interesting feature, and I was hoping to get around to doing more than glancing at it from my phone occasionally. Nearly three years after my first purchase I finally got around to writing a program to do what I wanted to log the energy usage.

I’d come across https://www.softscheck.com/en/reverse-engineering-tp-link-hs110/ when I first bought the HS110, and thought I would get around to doing what I wanted quickly, but as with so many projects, it was set aside as less important. With the transient nature of the web, I’m glad that this site is still visible, and the resulting github repository tools proved invaluable for me getting my project working. https://github.com/softScheck/tplink-smartplug

There are several python projects for communicating with these devices which I also found useful, but I was hoping to build a small program with very few dependencies. Part of what I wanted to know was the communication protocol over the ethernet, and that took the most time to decipher.

https://github.com/wcbonner/KasaEnergyLogger is my project, with all of the work done in a single threaded C++ file. I’ll hopefully describe what I know of the protocol in the future. As it is, I’m pulling data from multiple devices and logging it using MRTG. I know there are significantly better graphics dashboards available, but this requires very little infrastructure, and I’m logging the raw data in case I ever really want to revisit it.

MRTG graph of AC Power Usage

For most people these devices connect to Alexa or Google Home and the scheduling plus voice controls are all that they will ever use.

I was very happy with having lamps set to turn on at sunset and turn off at specific times. The fact that I live at a latitude where sunset changes from after 9pm in the peak of summer to before 5pm midwinter was plenty for me. I also use them for controlling fans to adjust the climate in my home when I’m not relying on air conditioning.

From a system monitoring perspective I’ve considered having two Raspberry Pi, each plugged into a HS105, monitoring each other and power cycling the other device if it can’t be reached for a designated period of time.

Here are some of the other sites I found useful in getting to my current state:

GoPro Flat Mount

I’ve had GoPro mounts fixed to either side of the boom of the sail boat I race on for several years. I primarily use the one on the starboard side, producing videos of races like the one below.

Last week the camera got caught in the reefing line as we raised the main sail, pulling the sticky mount completely off the boom. From past experience dropping the Gopro on the boat, I use a safety cord tied to the camera, so did not lose the camera.

This week I visited the boat the day before our race and installed a new mount on the boom. I also made sure that the reefing lines were resting on the port side of the boom so the camera wouldn’t be caught during the raise.

Soon after we had raised the main and taken a couple of tacks, the camera had shaken itself off the boom. The sticky pad didn’t stay stuck to the boom.

After I got home, I peeled the remainder of the sticky pad from the old mount with a lot of effort. I was able to peel the sticky pad from the new mount easily and in one piece.

The old mount is top right, the new mount is bottom left. An unused mount from my GoPro box is bottom right.

At one time I purchased a bunch of GoPro mounts in a kit from Amazon. The kit had a chest strap that was significantly cheaper than the original GoPro branded one. It was worth the price for me. I noticed that if I kept the new items in a Ziploc bag, the plastic had a distinct smell, while the original GoPro plastic did not. Knowing what I do about plastics, I didn’t want to trust my GoPro to the cheap plastic, unfortunately after having things sit around for a couple seasons I forgot that.

I believe the mount with the voids under the groove edges are from the inexpensive package. Along with questionable plastic, I believe it also used a less sticky adhesive pad.

I’ll try replacing the mount with the remaining original this coming week and hopefully be able to record another race

Govee H5075 and H5074, Bluetooth Low Energy, and MRTG

I have been wanting a method of keeping track of temperatures for a long time. Last week I acquired a Govee H5075 Bluetooth Thermometer Hygrometer. It communicates with an app from Govee on my iPhone using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE).

I’ve now learned some details on BLE, and have written a program that listens for BLE advertisements from either type of thermometer and logs the temperature and humidity in a text file. The code for my project is available on GitHub. https://github.com/wcbonner/GoveeBTTempLogger

The same program can also be called to get the last value from the log and produce output compatible with MRTG. MRTG is not the best method for graphing these temperatures, because all graphs start with zero on the Y axis, and neither the temperature or humidity is likely to be near zero.

MRTG graph of Temperature and Relative Humidity

My program seems to receive advertisements from each thermometer about every ten seconds. I’ve had a friend running the code in his location with a different set of thermometers and it doesn’t get advertisements nearly as frequently. I don’t know if that’s just because environment is different, or if there’s something else going on.

Govee GVH5075 Thermometer Hygrometer

Last week I came across a deal on a small thermometer with display and Bluetooth access for under $10 so I had to give it a try. The fact that the data is available via bluetooth instead of via a web service was a major selling point for me. I am hoping to be able to to log the data via a Raspberry Pi4.

GVH5070 near my Raspberry Pi4

I installed the Govee Home app on my iPhone and it was able to find the device, communicate with it, and pull both current and accumulated data.

When I attempted to find it from my Pi4 it was much more difficult. I live in an apartment with units all around. I’m not just dealing with my own devices that may be visible, but my neighbors as well.

I managed to find the device using linux command line tools, but was not able to successfully connect. A friend suggested BLE Scanner 4.0 for my iPhone for discovering the details, and it was at least able to confirm what I should be looking for using the linux command line tools. I still had timeout issues with the iPhone app, but at least was able to confirm that I could connect to the device and retrieve GUID information.

This is my first time attempting to gather data from a Bluetooth device. I’m still in the research and test phase. I’m listing a bunch of the URLS I’ve found that have been helpful.

https://www.reddit.com/r/Govee/comments/e8ljbp/work_to_access_data_from_a_govee_h5075_indoor/
https://www.jaredwolff.com/get-started-with-bluetooth-low-energy/
https://github.com/neilsheps/GoveeTemperatureAndHumidity
https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=37&t=241686
https://www.cnet.com/how-to/how-to-setup-bluetooth-on-a-raspberry-pi-3/
https://www.real-world-systems.com/docs/hcitool.1.html

From the command line on my Pi4 I already had the tools installed to try several Bluetooth commands. I believe they were installed as part of the bluez package. The first two commands below get details on the Raspberry Pi Bluetooth hardware, then the hcitool lescan command produced a lot of devices, and I found the line referencing the GVH5075 so I could use the address in further commands.

pi@WimPi4:~ $ sudo hcitool dev
Devices:
        hci0    DC:A6:32:1C:B5:74

pi@WimPi4:~ $ sudo hciconfig -a
hci0:   Type: Primary  Bus: UART
        BD Address: DC:A6:32:1C:B5:74  ACL MTU: 1021:8  SCO MTU: 64:1
        UP RUNNING 
        RX bytes:21284 acl:25 sco:0 events:791 errors:0
        TX bytes:4401 acl:26 sco:0 commands:172 errors:0
        Features: 0xbf 0xfe 0xcf 0xfe 0xdb 0xff 0x7b 0x87
        Packet type: DM1 DM3 DM5 DH1 DH3 DH5 HV1 HV2 HV3 
        Link policy: RSWITCH SNIFF 
        Link mode: SLAVE ACCEPT 
        Name: 'WimPi4'
        Class: 0x000000
        Service Classes: Unspecified
        Device Class: Miscellaneous, 
        HCI Version: 5.0 (0x9)  Revision: 0x13b
        LMP Version: 5.0 (0x9)  Subversion: 0x6119
        Manufacturer: Cypress Semiconductor Corporation (305)

pi@WimPi4:~ $ sudo hcitool lescan
LE Scan ...
7B:F9:68:96:C4:92 (unknown)
57:FA:0A:E7:61:A4 (unknown)
A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE GVH5075_BCAE
A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE (unknown)
15:FF:0C:3F:E7:35 (unknown)
57:FA:0A:E7:61:A4 (unknown)

pi@WimPi4:~ $ sudo hcitool leinfo A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE
Requesting information ...
        Handle: 64 (0x0040)
        LMP Version: 4.2 (0x8) LMP Subversion: 0x22bb
        Manufacturer: Telink Semiconductor Co. Ltd (529)
        Features: 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00

Another command that I attempted before I used the hcitool command was the bluetoothctl command. It scrolls a lot of data, but now that I have an idea what I’m looking at, I may be able to see announcement data from the thermometer periodically in the stream by filtering just to see the data coming from the MAC address.

pi@WimPi4:~ $ sudo bluetoothctl
Agent registered
[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[CHG] Controller DC:A6:32:1C:B5:74 Discovering: yes
[NEW] Device 57:75:EA:B6:EC:2B 57-75-EA-B6-EC-2B
[NEW] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F 846B219FB80338A3E9
[NEW] Device 48:56:2E:FF:59:45 48-56-2E-FF-59-45
[NEW] Device 46:53:2F:D4:6F:A1 46-53-2F-D4-6F-A1
[NEW] Device 5C:C9:C5:C9:70:5F 5C-C9-C5-C9-70-5F
[NEW] Device 48:CF:F7:19:4A:3A 48-CF-F7-19-4A-3A
[NEW] Device 4E:30:D1:5D:0F:48 4E-30-D1-5D-0F-48
[NEW] Device 7D:4A:A3:81:32:22 7D-4A-A3-81-32-22
[NEW] Device 7E:0F:63:2B:DC:3E 7E-0F-63-2B-DC-3E
[NEW] Device 7F:5D:37:A2:4E:BA 7F-5D-37-A2-4E-BA
[NEW] Device 7F:6B:44:CD:3A:E5 7F-6B-44-CD-3A-E5
[NEW] Device 00:07:80:37:BD:35 00-07-80-37-BD-35
[NEW] Device 04:52:C7:BC:1C:E3 LE-Bose Revolve SoundLink
[NEW] Device 4F:84:D2:AC:59:FF 4F-84-D2-AC-59-FF
[NEW] Device 4E:F0:6A:DD:3D:7E 4E-F0-6A-DD-3D-7E
[NEW] Device 75:25:34:3F:B9:29 75-25-34-3F-B9-29
[NEW] Device 60:EC:A4:49:B6:67 60-EC-A4-49-B6-67
[NEW] Device 98:D6:BB:20:EB:3B 98-D6-BB-20-EB-3B
[NEW] Device 78:13:28:A8:0A:FF 78-13-28-A8-0A-FF
[NEW] Device 56:6F:B2:E0:40:E3 56-6F-B2-E0-40-E3
[NEW] Device 69:D9:38:44:5C:04 69-D9-38-44-5C-04
[NEW] Device 56:63:50:90:82:D6 56-63-50-90-82-D6
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE RSSI: -43
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE ManufacturerData Key: 0xec88
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE ManufacturerData Value:
00 03 32 62 64 00 ..2bd.
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE ManufacturerData Key: 0x004c
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE ManufacturerData Value:
02 15 49 4e 54 45 4c 4c 49 5f 52 4f 43 4b 53 5f ..INTELLI_ROCKS_
48 57 50 75 f2 ff c2 HWPu…
[CHG] Device 75:25:34:3F:B9:29 RSSI: -83
[NEW] Device 47:10:2F:15:99:2E 47-10-2F-15-99-2E
[NEW] Device B8:31:B5:8B:12:D2 ETOBAN386
[NEW] Device F0:6E:0B:D1:1B:BF ELRWLK345
[CHG] Device 75:25:34:3F:B9:29 RSSI: -72
[CHG] Device 7D:4A:A3:81:32:22 RSSI: -89
[CHG] Device 7D:4A:A3:81:32:22 RSSI: -81
[CHG] Device 98:D6:BB:20:EB:3B RSSI: -94
[NEW] Device A4:83:E7:20:06:5B A4-83-E7-20-06-5B
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Key: 0x05a7
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Value:
03 13 31 68 39 63 51 6f 4b 76 54 34 00 ..1h9cQoKvT4.
[NEW] Device 00:07:80:37:CA:7D 00-07-80-37-CA-7D
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Key: 0x05a7
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Value:
03 12 78 4d 32 49 31 6d 31 6a 6f 32 67 ..xM2I1m1jo2g
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Key: 0x05a7
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Value:
03 10 01 99 44 de ad be ef 00 0a 00 ca ….D……..
[CHG] Device 4E:30:D1:5D:0F:48 ManufacturerData Key: 0x004c
[CHG] Device 4E:30:D1:5D:0F:48 ManufacturerData Value:
10 06 10 1e b0 2a e1 be …..*..
[CHG] Device 98:D6:BB:20:EB:3B RSSI: -85
[NEW] Device 00:07:80:37:BE:C9 523
[CHG] Device 5C:C9:C5:C9:70:5F ManufacturerData Key: 0x004c
[CHG] Device 5C:C9:C5:C9:70:5F ManufacturerData Value:
10 06 5a 1e 56 a0 e1 eb ..Z.V…
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Key: 0x05a7
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Value:
03 13 31 68 39 63 51 6f 4b 76 54 34 00 ..1h9cQoKvT4.
[CHG] Device 75:25:34:3F:B9:29 RSSI: -81
[NEW] Device 6B:C2:D2:28:1E:A5 6B-C2-D2-28-1E-A5
[CHG] Device 5C:C9:C5:C9:70:5F ManufacturerData Key: 0x004c
[CHG] Device 5C:C9:C5:C9:70:5F ManufacturerData Value:
0c 0e 00 41 32 56 c8 79 5a 01 9d 63 d5 79 c7 80 …A2V.yZ..c.y..
10 06 56 1e 56 a0 e1 eb ..V.V…
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE RSSI: -35
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE ManufacturerData Key: 0xec88
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE ManufacturerData Value:
00 03 32 61 64 00 ..2ad.
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE ManufacturerData Key: 0x004c
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE ManufacturerData Value:
02 15 49 4e 54 45 4c 4c 49 5f 52 4f 43 4b 53 5f ..INTELLI_ROCKS_
48 57 50 75 f2 ff c2 HWPu…
[CHG] Device 48:CF:F7:19:4A:3A RSSI: -76
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Key: 0x05a7
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Value:
03 10 01 99 44 de ad be ef 00 0a 00 ca ….D……..
[NEW] Device 78:11:F9:E8:7A:DA 78-11-F9-E8-7A-DA
[CHG] Device 47:10:2F:15:99:2E RSSI: -84
[CHG] Device 69:D9:38:44:5C:04 RSSI: -83
[CHG] Device 47:10:2F:15:99:2E ManufacturerData Key: 0x004c
[CHG] Device 47:10:2F:15:99:2E ManufacturerData Value:
10 06 1c 1e 9a e0 28 9b ……(.
[CHG] Device 5C:C9:C5:C9:70:5F ManufacturerData Key: 0x004c
[CHG] Device 5C:C9:C5:C9:70:5F ManufacturerData Value:
0c 0e 00 42 32 7b fc b2 b6 a1 46 31 82 0f 67 02 …B2{….F1..g.
10 06 56 1e 56 a0 e1 eb ..V.V…
[CHG] Device 75:25:34:3F:B9:29 RSSI: -73
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Key: 0x05a7
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F ManufacturerData Value:
03 13 31 68 39 63 51 6f 4b 76 54 34 00 ..1h9cQoKvT4.
[CHG] Device 47:10:2F:15:99:2E ManufacturerData Key: 0x004c
[CHG] Device 47:10:2F:15:99:2E ManufacturerData Value:
10 06 14 1e 9a e0 28 9b ……(.
[NEW] Device 5C:53:86:8D:A4:61 5C-53-86-8D-A4-61
[NEW] Device 42:32:EC:5F:59:C5 42-32-EC-5F-59-C5
[bluetooth]# scan off
Discovery stopped
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F RSSI is nil
[DEL] Device E7:E7:B4:AB:4A:1F 846B219FB80338A3E9
[CHG] Controller DC:A6:32:1C:B5:74 Discovering: no
[CHG] Device 42:32:EC:5F:59:C5 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 42:32:EC:5F:59:C5 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 5C:53:86:8D:A4:61 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 78:11:F9:E8:7A:DA TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 78:11:F9:E8:7A:DA RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 6B:C2:D2:28:1E:A5 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 6B:C2:D2:28:1E:A5 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 00:07:80:37:BE:C9 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 00:07:80:37:CA:7D RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device A4:83:E7:20:06:5B RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device F0:6E:0B:D1:1B:BF TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device F0:6E:0B:D1:1B:BF RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device B8:31:B5:8B:12:D2 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device B8:31:B5:8B:12:D2 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 47:10:2F:15:99:2E TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 47:10:2F:15:99:2E RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device A4:C1:38:37:BC:AE RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 56:63:50:90:82:D6 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 69:D9:38:44:5C:04 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 69:D9:38:44:5C:04 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 56:6F:B2:E0:40:E3 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 56:6F:B2:E0:40:E3 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 78:13:28:A8:0A:FF TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 78:13:28:A8:0A:FF RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 98:D6:BB:20:EB:3B RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 60:EC:A4:49:B6:67 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 60:EC:A4:49:B6:67 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 75:25:34:3F:B9:29 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 75:25:34:3F:B9:29 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 4E:F0:6A:DD:3D:7E TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 4E:F0:6A:DD:3D:7E RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 4F:84:D2:AC:59:FF TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 4F:84:D2:AC:59:FF RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 04:52:C7:BC:1C:E3 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 04:52:C7:BC:1C:E3 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 00:07:80:37:BD:35 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 7F:6B:44:CD:3A:E5 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 7F:6B:44:CD:3A:E5 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 7F:5D:37:A2:4E:BA TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 7F:5D:37:A2:4E:BA RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 7E:0F:63:2B:DC:3E TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 7E:0F:63:2B:DC:3E RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 7D:4A:A3:81:32:22 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 7D:4A:A3:81:32:22 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 4E:30:D1:5D:0F:48 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 4E:30:D1:5D:0F:48 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 48:CF:F7:19:4A:3A TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 48:CF:F7:19:4A:3A RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 5C:C9:C5:C9:70:5F TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 5C:C9:C5:C9:70:5F RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 46:53:2F:D4:6F:A1 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 46:53:2F:D4:6F:A1 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 48:56:2E:FF:59:45 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 48:56:2E:FF:59:45 RSSI is nil
[CHG] Device 57:75:EA:B6:EC:2B TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 57:75:EA:B6:EC:2B RSSI is nil
[DEL] Device 57:75:EA:B6:EC:2B 57-75-EA-B6-EC-2B
[DEL] Device 48:56:2E:FF:59:45 48-56-2E-FF-59-45
[DEL] Device 46:53:2F:D4:6F:A1 46-53-2F-D4-6F-A1
[DEL] Device 5C:C9:C5:C9:70:5F 5C-C9-C5-C9-70-5F
[DEL] Device 48:CF:F7:19:4A:3A 48-CF-F7-19-4A-3A
[DEL] Device 4E:30:D1:5D:0F:48 4E-30-D1-5D-0F-48
[DEL] Device 7D:4A:A3:81:32:22 7D-4A-A3-81-32-22
[DEL] Device 7E:0F:63:2B:DC:3E 7E-0F-63-2B-DC-3E
[DEL] Device 7F:5D:37:A2:4E:BA 7F-5D-37-A2-4E-BA
[DEL] Device 7F:6B:44:CD:3A:E5 7F-6B-44-CD-3A-E5
[DEL] Device 00:07:80:37:BD:35 00-07-80-37-BD-35
[DEL] Device 04:52:C7:BC:1C:E3 LE-Bose Revolve SoundLink
[DEL] Device 4F:84:D2:AC:59:FF 4F-84-D2-AC-59-FF
[DEL] Device 4E:F0:6A:DD:3D:7E 4E-F0-6A-DD-3D-7E
[DEL] Device 75:25:34:3F:B9:29 75-25-34-3F-B9-29
[DEL] Device 60:EC:A4:49:B6:67 60-EC-A4-49-B6-67
[DEL] Device 98:D6:BB:20:EB:3B 98-D6-BB-20-EB-3B
[DEL] Device 78:13:28:A8:0A:FF 78-13-28-A8-0A-FF
[DEL] Device 56:6F:B2:E0:40:E3 56-6F-B2-E0-40-E3
[DEL] Device 69:D9:38:44:5C:04 69-D9-38-44-5C-04
[DEL] Device 56:63:50:90:82:D6 56-63-50-90-82-D6
[DEL] Device 47:10:2F:15:99:2E 47-10-2F-15-99-2E
[DEL] Device B8:31:B5:8B:12:D2 ETOBAN386
[DEL] Device F0:6E:0B:D1:1B:BF ELRWLK345
[DEL] Device A4:83:E7:20:06:5B A4-83-E7-20-06-5B
[DEL] Device 00:07:80:37:CA:7D 00-07-80-37-CA-7D
[DEL] Device 00:07:80:37:BE:C9 523
[DEL] Device 6B:C2:D2:28:1E:A5 6B-C2-D2-28-1E-A5
[DEL] Device 78:11:F9:E8:7A:DA 78-11-F9-E8-7A-DA
[DEL] Device 5C:53:86:8D:A4:61 5C-53-86-8D-A4-61
[DEL] Device 42:32:EC:5F:59:C5 42-32-EC-5F-59-C5
[bluetooth]# exit

I’m posting all of this here and hopefully will be able to make progress on retrieving the data in the next few days.

IKEA SYMFONISK Speakers

I recently purchased a set of IKEA SYMFONISK speakers for use in my studio apartment. They are relatively inexpensive at $99.99 each. IKEA also sells a wall mount bracket for another $19.99 each. The speakers are available in two colors, black and white. I’ve got a pair of black speakers in the living room, configured as a stereo pair, and a single white speaker mounted using a wall mount in the bathroom.

Each speaker comes with a color matching nylon braid wrapped power cord and a three foot ethernet cord.

I used a pair of On-Command strips in the living room to stick the speakers to the underside of the cabinets. Using two strips are supposedly rated at 8lbs, but that would be in normal picture orientation. I held the speakers in place for the first half hour with a set of furniture clamps to make sure the adhesive had time to set. The edges of the Symfonisk speakers are flat. the back is slightly recessed. I purchased the wall mount kit for the speaker in the bathroom, and used another pair of on-command strips to hang that speaker.

 

Configuration of the speakers is done entirely with the standard SONOS app.

I ran into a small problem trying to get the first speaker working, but was able to get the rest working easily once I’d understood the issue. These speakers only seem to work with 2.4GHz networking. My network was configured with both 2.4GHz and 5GHz with separate SSIDs. My phone was configured to autojoin the 5GHz network and not the 2.4GHz network. To properly configure the speakers to work on my network I had to make sure my phone was connected to the SSID for the 2.4GHz network and would ignore the 5GHz network.

I can now play music that fills my entire apartment, streaming to both the bathroom and the living room.

Raspberry Pi ZeroW Camera Focus with FFMPEG

I wanted a quick and dirty method to test my camera module installation on my Raspberry Pi ZeroW installation. I don’t have a monitor connected to the Raspberry, and explicitly did not install the desktop version of the operating system. This is especially important because the camera itself may not be properly focused after installation in the case, and the only way to easily focus the camera is with a video stream allowing you to make small adjustments and see them nearly real time.

I’ve used FFMPEG for years as it handles almost any kind of video or audio I can throw at it. I use VLC on my desktop machine for similar reasons.

I did a quick install of ffmpeg on my Pi with the following command, allowing it to install all the requirements, adding up to almost 126 new packages and 56MB that needed to be downloaded and installed.

sudo apt-get install ffmpeg -y

After it finished installing, I was able to run the following command with the 192.168.0.16 address being my desktop computer.

ffmpeg -f video4linux2 -input_format h264 -video_size 1280x720 -framerate 30 -i /dev/video0 -vcodec copy -an -f mpegts udp://192.168.0.16:5000?pkt_size=1316

On my desktop computer I ran VLC, under the Media menu, selected Open Network Stream, and opened:

udp://@0.0.0.0:5000

2019-09-23 (1)2019-09-23 (2)

What I’m doing is to use FFMPEG to pull video from the device and push it using UDP datagrams at my desktop on port 5000. Then VLC opens a port on the local machine at port 5000 to receive the datagrams and it decodes and displays the video. An interesting thing about this method is that I can stop transmitting from the raspberry, then restart it, and VLC will accept the packets since UDP is a connectionless protocol.

What really surprised me was that when I logged in a second time to my Raspberry Pi to view the CPU usage for streaming, it was only running around 12% of the CPU. I was interested in knowing what native formats the camera supported..

ffmpeg -f v4l2 -list_formats all -i /dev/video0
ffmpeg version 4.1.4-1+rpt1~deb10u1 Copyright (c) 2000-2019 the FFmpeg developers
  built with gcc 8 (Raspbian 8.3.0-6+rpi1)
  configuration: --prefix=/usr --extra-version='1+rpt1~deb10u1' --toolchain=hardened --libdir=/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf --incdir=/usr/include/arm-linux-gnueabihf --arch=arm --enable-gpl --disable-stripping --enable-avresample --disable-filter=resample --enable-avisynth --enable-gnutls --enable-ladspa --enable-libaom --enable-libass --enable-libbluray --enable-libbs2b --enable-libcaca --enable-libcdio --enable-libcodec2 --enable-libflite --enable-libfontconfig --enable-libfreetype --enable-libfribidi --enable-libgme --enable-libgsm --enable-libjack --enable-libmp3lame --enable-libmysofa --enable-libopenjpeg --enable-libopenmpt --enable-libopus --enable-libpulse --enable-librsvg --enable-librubberband --enable-libshine --enable-libsnappy --enable-libsoxr --enable-libspeex --enable-libssh --enable-libtheora --enable-libtwolame --enable-libvidstab --enable-libvorbis --enable-libvpx --enable-libwavpack --enable-libwebp --enable-libx265 --enable-libxml2 --enable-libxvid --enable-libzmq --enable-libzvbi --enable-lv2 --enable-omx --enable-openal --enable-opengl --enable-sdl2 --enable-omx-rpi --enable-mmal --enable-libdc1394 --enable-libdrm --enable-libiec61883 --enable-chromaprint --enable-frei0r --enable-libx264 --enable-shared
  libavutil      56. 22.100 / 56. 22.100
  libavcodec     58. 35.100 / 58. 35.100
  libavformat    58. 20.100 / 58. 20.100
  libavdevice    58.  5.100 / 58.  5.100
  libavfilter     7. 40.101 /  7. 40.101
  libavresample   4.  0.  0 /  4.  0.  0
  libswscale      5.  3.100 /  5.  3.100
  libswresample   3.  3.100 /  3.  3.100
  libpostproc    55.  3.100 / 55.  3.100
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :     yuv420p :     Planar YUV 4:2:0 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :     yuyv422 :           YUYV 4:2:2 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :       rgb24 :     24-bit RGB 8-8-8 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Compressed:       mjpeg :            JFIF JPEG : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Compressed:        h264 :                H.264 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Compressed:       mjpeg :          Motion-JPEG : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       : Unsupported :           YVYU 4:2:2 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       : Unsupported :           VYUY 4:2:2 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :     uyvy422 :           UYVY 4:2:2 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :        nv12 :         Y/CbCr 4:2:0 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :       bgr24 :     24-bit BGR 8-8-8 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :     yuv420p :     Planar YVU 4:2:0 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       : Unsupported :         Y/CrCb 4:2:0 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :        bgr0 : 32-bit BGRA/X 8-8-8-8 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
/dev/video0: Immediate exit requested

That output leads me to believe that the camera module could output either h264 or mjpeg without significant CPU overhead. What it doesn’t do is tell me efficient frame sizes. It seems to say that horizontal and vertical sizes can be anything between 32 to 3280 and 32 to 2464. I know that the specs on the camera say that it will run still frames at the high resolution, but video is significantly less.

Two Video4Linux commands that return interesting and similar results are:

pi@WimPiZeroCamera:~ $ v4l2-ctl --list-formats-ext
ioctl: VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT
        Type: Video Capture

        [0]: 'YU12' (Planar YUV 4:2:0)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [1]: 'YUYV' (YUYV 4:2:2)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [2]: 'RGB3' (24-bit RGB 8-8-8)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [3]: 'JPEG' (JFIF JPEG, compressed)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [4]: 'H264' (H.264, compressed)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [5]: 'MJPG' (Motion-JPEG, compressed)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [6]: 'YVYU' (YVYU 4:2:2)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [7]: 'VYUY' (VYUY 4:2:2)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [8]: 'UYVY' (UYVY 4:2:2)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [9]: 'NV12' (Y/CbCr 4:2:0)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [10]: 'BGR3' (24-bit BGR 8-8-8)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [11]: 'YV12' (Planar YVU 4:2:0)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [12]: 'NV21' (Y/CrCb 4:2:0)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [13]: 'BGR4' (32-bit BGRA/X 8-8-8-8)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
pi@WimPiZeroCamera:~ $ v4l2-ctl -L

User Controls

                     brightness 0x00980900 (int)    : min=0 max=100 step=1 default=50 value=50 flags=slider
                       contrast 0x00980901 (int)    : min=-100 max=100 step=1 default=0 value=0 flags=slider
                     saturation 0x00980902 (int)    : min=-100 max=100 step=1 default=0 value=0 flags=slider
                    red_balance 0x0098090e (int)    : min=1 max=7999 step=1 default=1000 value=1000 flags=slider
                   blue_balance 0x0098090f (int)    : min=1 max=7999 step=1 default=1000 value=1000 flags=slider
                horizontal_flip 0x00980914 (bool)   : default=0 value=0
                  vertical_flip 0x00980915 (bool)   : default=0 value=0
           power_line_frequency 0x00980918 (menu)   : min=0 max=3 default=1 value=1
                                0: Disabled
                                1: 50 Hz
                                2: 60 Hz
                                3: Auto
                      sharpness 0x0098091b (int)    : min=-100 max=100 step=1 default=0 value=0 flags=slider
                  color_effects 0x0098091f (menu)   : min=0 max=15 default=0 value=0
                                0: None
                                1: Black & White
                                2: Sepia
                                3: Negative
                                4: Emboss
                                5: Sketch
                                6: Sky Blue
                                7: Grass Green
                                8: Skin Whiten
                                9: Vivid
                                10: Aqua
                                11: Art Freeze
                                12: Silhouette
                                13: Solarization
                                14: Antique
                                15: Set Cb/Cr
                         rotate 0x00980922 (int)    : min=0 max=360 step=90 default=0 value=0 flags=modify-layout
             color_effects_cbcr 0x0098092a (int)    : min=0 max=65535 step=1 default=32896 value=32896

Codec Controls

             video_bitrate_mode 0x009909ce (menu)   : min=0 max=1 default=0 value=0 flags=update
                                0: Variable Bitrate
                                1: Constant Bitrate
                  video_bitrate 0x009909cf (int)    : min=25000 max=25000000 step=25000 default=10000000 value=10000000
         repeat_sequence_header 0x009909e2 (bool)   : default=0 value=0
            h264_i_frame_period 0x00990a66 (int)    : min=0 max=2147483647 step=1 default=60 value=60
                     h264_level 0x00990a67 (menu)   : min=0 max=11 default=11 value=11
                                0: 1
                                1: 1b
                                2: 1.1
                                3: 1.2
                                4: 1.3
                                5: 2
                                6: 2.1
                                7: 2.2
                                8: 3
                                9: 3.1
                                10: 3.2
                                11: 4
                   h264_profile 0x00990a6b (menu)   : min=0 max=4 default=4 value=4
                                0: Baseline
                                1: Constrained Baseline
                                2: Main
                                4: High

Camera Controls

                  auto_exposure 0x009a0901 (menu)   : min=0 max=3 default=0 value=0
                                0: Auto Mode
                                1: Manual Mode
         exposure_time_absolute 0x009a0902 (int)    : min=1 max=10000 step=1 default=1000 value=1000
     exposure_dynamic_framerate 0x009a0903 (bool)   : default=0 value=0
             auto_exposure_bias 0x009a0913 (intmenu): min=0 max=24 default=12 value=12
                                0: -4000 (0xfffffffffffff060)
                                1: -3667 (0xfffffffffffff1ad)
                                2: -3333 (0xfffffffffffff2fb)
                                3: -3000 (0xfffffffffffff448)
                                4: -2667 (0xfffffffffffff595)
                                5: -2333 (0xfffffffffffff6e3)
                                6: -2000 (0xfffffffffffff830)
                                7: -1667 (0xfffffffffffff97d)
                                8: -1333 (0xfffffffffffffacb)
                                9: -1000 (0xfffffffffffffc18)
                                10: -667 (0xfffffffffffffd65)
                                11: -333 (0xfffffffffffffeb3)
                                12: 0 (0x0)
                                13: 333 (0x14d)
                                14: 667 (0x29b)
                                15: 1000 (0x3e8)
                                16: 1333 (0x535)
                                17: 1667 (0x683)
                                18: 2000 (0x7d0)
                                19: 2333 (0x91d)
                                20: 2667 (0xa6b)
                                21: 3000 (0xbb8)
                                22: 3333 (0xd05)
                                23: 3667 (0xe53)
                                24: 4000 (0xfa0)
      white_balance_auto_preset 0x009a0914 (menu)   : min=0 max=9 default=1 value=1
                                0: Manual
                                1: Auto
                                2: Incandescent
                                3: Fluorescent
                                4: Fluorescent H
                                5: Horizon
                                6: Daylight
                                7: Flash
                                8: Cloudy
                                9: Shade
            image_stabilization 0x009a0916 (bool)   : default=0 value=0
                iso_sensitivity 0x009a0917 (intmenu): min=0 max=4 default=0 value=0
                                0: 0 (0x0)
                                1: 100000 (0x186a0)
                                2: 200000 (0x30d40)
                                3: 400000 (0x61a80)
                                4: 800000 (0xc3500)
           iso_sensitivity_auto 0x009a0918 (menu)   : min=0 max=1 default=1 value=1
                                0: Manual
                                1: Auto
         exposure_metering_mode 0x009a0919 (menu)   : min=0 max=2 default=0 value=0
                                0: Average
                                1: Center Weighted
                                2: Spot
                     scene_mode 0x009a091a (menu)   : min=0 max=13 default=0 value=0
                                0: None
                                8: Night
                                11: Sports

JPEG Compression Controls

            compression_quality 0x009d0903 (int)    : min=1 max=100 step=1 default=30 value=30

 

 

5GHz WiFi on Raspberry Pi 4

In my post about quickly setting up a headless Raspberry I had a simple wpa_supplicant.conf file example. This week I got a Raspberry Pi 4, which according to the documentation supports 5GHz networks and 802.11ac.

I’d been running the command sudo iwlist wlan0 scan | grep ESSID and only seeing 2.4GHz networks.

It occurred to me that I’d seen some people in other countries putting the country detail in their wpa_supplicant.conf file, so I decided to see if it made a difference. Sure enough, after adding the line country=US to my file I was able to see 5GHz networks as well as 2.4GHz networks.

ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev
update_config=1
country=US

network={
       ssid="MyNetworkSSID"
       psk="MyNetworkPassword"
}
After a bit of reading on the https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/wireless/wireless-cli.md page, I noticed a section that made this point with the Pi 3B+, but because I’d not used a 3B+, I didn’t realize it supported 5GHz networking as well.
On the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+, you will also need to set the country code, so that the 5G networking can choose the correct frequency bands. You can either use the raspi-config application and select the localisation option, or edit the wpa_supplicant.conf file and add the following. (Note you need to replace ‘GB’ with the ISO code of your country. See Wikipedia for a list of country codes.)

Raspberry PiZeroW Camera Module

20190913_140539

When you’ve gotten used to Amazon Prime and free shipping, purchasing inexpensive items from other online retailers where the shipping doubles the cost of the item makes it harder to impulse buy items. An item for $5 that costs $7 in shipping often doesn’t get bought. Even a pair of items that cost $16 together that then cost $7 in shipping cause me to delay the purchase.

20190913_143154

Because I was purchasing a Raspberry Pi 4 and Raspberry Pi USB-C Power Supply from Sparkfun, I decided to throw in another Pi ZeroW and case for another $16. I then added the Raspberry Pi Camera module because the case has an optional cover enclosing the camera and I wanted to see how it all worked together. I only wish I’d realized that there was a Noir version, because I’ve always wanted to play with infrared photography.

Having recently streamlined the installation of a Pi Zero, I installed the camera and Pi ZeroW in the case, put the configured micro sd card in place, plugged it into my HDMI monitor just to watch it boot and applied power. I never saw anything on the monitor. The Pi ZeroW only has a single LED, which is generally on, but blinks for micro sd activity. Because I’d closed the case, the LED wasn’t visible, and with no monitor activity I was wondering if I’d gotten a bad board.

20190913_143130

I opened the case and powered it on again, this time I knew I was seeing LED activity. I did a quick search of my network for new devices and found the new board was responding on ssh and appeared to be working correctly other than no HDMI output.  I was even able to take a snapshot with the camera using the command:

raspistill -o image.jpg

I decided to test booting the device without the camera installed. That worked fine, and I had HDMI output during the boot process. Now I started to wonder if perhaps the power supply I was using didn’t provide enough power. Perhaps the camera and the HDMI device were mutually exclusive in the amount of power required

A lot of searching on the web resulted in nothing about the power required for the camera affecting the HDMI output. I found that I might be able to reduce the power requirements by 25mA by turning off the HDMI, but that the Pi ZeroW was already the lowest power draw available. https://www.jeffgeerling.com/blogs/jeff-geerling/raspberry-pi-zero-conserve-energy

I found the tvservice command and the -s option with the camera installed was resulting in a different result from without the camera installed.

pi@WimPiZeroCamera:~ $ sudo /usr/bin/tvservice -s
state 0x40000 [NTSC 4:3], 720x480 @ 60.00Hz, interlaced
pi@WimPiZeroW:~ $ sudo /usr/bin/tvservice -s
state 0xa [HDMI CEA (16) RGB lim 16:9], 1920x1080 @ 60.00Hz, progressive

At least recognizing that difference was progress. For some reason under Raspian Buster the camera module is causing the HDMI output to be different. I found options in https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/config-txt/video.md that allow me to force the HDMI output to what I want. I changed /boot/config.txt with the following and now I’ve got both camera and video working properly.

# uncomment to force a specific HDMI mode (this will force [HDMI CEA (16) RGB lim 16:9], 1920x1080 @ 60.00Hz, progressive)
hdmi_group=1
hdmi_mode=16

I hope that this helps someone else having problems with both camera and hdmi video output. I don’t know if this was specific to Buster since I never tried it under Jessie or Stretch.

Headless Raspberry Pi Setup

I’ve been using a raspberry pi as a ADSB data feeder for FlightAware and FlightRadar24 for a while and the micro sd card developed a bad sector. That meant I needed to rebuild the installation. I really didn’t want to deal with connecting a keyboard, monitor, and mouse to the Pi for the installation. I found https://core-electronics.com.au/tutorials/raspberry-pi-zerow-headless-wifi-setup.html giving me useful information on how to avoid all that. I’m documenting my steps here for my own memory.

Step 1. Download the most recent version of Raspian Buster Lite from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/raspbian/

Step 2. Download balenaEtcher portable from https://www.balena.io/etcher/

Step 3. Use Etcher to overwrite an SD card with the Raspian image I downloaded earlier.

2019-09-09 (28)2019-09-09 (29)2019-09-09 (30)2019-09-09 (31)2019-09-09 (33)2019-09-09 (34)

Step 4. Eject the flash card and close Etcher, then insert the flash card again, rejecting the option to format the drive.  The flash card is now formatted with multiple partitions, only the first is easily read in windows.

Step 5. create two files on the sd card boot partition. ssh and wpa_supplicant.conf. ssh is an empty file. wpa_supplicant.conf should have the following contents, customized for your WiFi Network:

ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev
update_config=1
country=US

network={
       ssid="MyNetworkSSID"
       psk="MyNetworkPassword"
}

Step 6. Eject your micro sd card, put it in the Raspberry Pi and power on the raspberry. You’ll need to wait a couple of minutes for the raspberry to finish several steps before you can connect to it over the network. The Raspberry Pi is expanding the native filesystem to fill the available space on the flash card, then rebooting another time with the new filesystem. You’ll need to figure out what IP address the Raspberry retrieved on your network. If you have access to your router, you may be able to see the attached devices and find the new Raspberry that way. I like the NirSoft Wireless Network Watcher to find what’s on my network https://www.nirsoft.net/utils/wireless_network_watcher.html.

Step 7. Connect to the Raspberry Pi with ssh. You’ll be using the default user and password to connect: “pi” and “raspberry”. I used the new Microsoft Windows Terminal in Windows 10 for this example. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/p/windows-terminal-preview/9n0dx20hk701#activetab=pivot:overviewtab

2019-09-09 (35)

The Raspberry is up and running now. There are several steps I recommend to do immediately. Use sudo raspi-config to set the user password, the machine hostname, and the timezone you want the machine to use.

2019-09-09 (36)2019-09-09 (37)2019-09-09 (38)2019-09-09 (39)2019-09-09 (40)2019-09-09 (41)2019-09-09 (42)2019-09-09 (49)2019-09-09 (50)2019-09-09 (51)2019-09-09 (52)2019-09-09 (53)2019-09-09 (44)

After waiting for the raspberry to reboot and reconnecting via ssh, updating the software to the latest version is the next step.

sudo apt-get update -y
sudo apt-get upgrade -y
sudo shutdown -r now

2019-09-09 (47)

Then I install several tools that I like to have.

sudo apt-get install lighttpd mc mrtg lrzsz nmap dnsutils etherwake snmpd snmp arp-scan shairport-sync -y

My next steps are to get PiAware and FlightRadar up and running.

TaoTronics Bluetooth Transmitter connected to my Samsung Soundbar

A couple of years ago I bought a discount sound bar to use as my computer speaker. I’ve been really happy with the sound quality. It’s connected via an optical cable to my computer and has a separate subwoofer.

This summer I moved into a new apartment, and during the last month I’ve run into a problem. One of my neighbors seems to be connecting to my soundbar via Bluetooth.

By watching the display I was able to at least learn what brand device was connecting. I still don’t know the exact model name. https://www.taotronics.com/bluetooth-transmitter-reset.html shows how to reset the device itself. Unfortunately my soundbar doesn’t have a way of setting the Bluetooth pairing code, or resetting the handshake with any devices that may want to connect with it, or fully disabling Bluetooth. https://www.samsung.com/us/support/owners/product/2015-soundbar-w-subwoofer-hw-j355

When I first noticed the problem, the sound bar was in a mode that would let Bluetooth turn on the sound bar, which was extremely frustrating when I was nearly asleep and the soundbar would start playing noises for no reason. That caused me to learn how to disable the Bluetooth power on feature of the sound bar.  Now at least it will only switch to Bluetooth when I’m actually using the soundbar for computer output.

The TaoTronics devices seem to be able to connect to multiple devices at the same time. I’m guessing that my neighbor has no idea that they are connecting to a second device at all. Obviously it’s built to make connecting to devices as easy as possible.

If anyone has suggestions on how to reject an already paired device from Bluetooth, I’d love to see it in the comments. I’m willing to use one of my Raspberry Pi devices that supports Bluetooth to see if there’s a way to send an interrupt signal.