Retrieve Wi-Fi Password in Windows 10

Sometimes I go to a place I’ve been before and my computer remembers the WiFi password while my brain does not. The following Windows PowerShell commands will display most of the remembered passwords.

netsh wlan show profiles

netsh wlan show profiles name=’ProfileToDisplay’ key=clear

The first command displays all of the networks your computer has remembered. It can be rather long if you’ve had your computer for several years and done a reasonable amount of traveling and using WiFi in strange locations.

2019-11-27 (1)

The second command takes the profile name that you retrieved with the first command and displays details of the selected profile. The password is displayed as the Key Content section of the Security settings.

2019-11-27 (2)

IPv6 Testing on Apple Personal Hotspot

I have IPv6 set up and running on my home network, but there was some testing I wanted to run remotely. My local Starbucks WiFi isn’t running IPv6 according to my quick test with

2019-10-28 (2)

The same test from my iPhone on TMobile shows it’s running IPv6 by default.


I had read somewhere that Apple supported IPv6 on the personal hotspot through a loophole in the netmask routing algorithms used by most providers..

When I tested the local network connection on my computer while connected to the Apple Personal Hotspot, it appeared to be running IPv6.

Mon 10/28/2019 14:57:08.69 C:\Users\Wim>ipconfig /all

Windows IP Configuration

Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : WimSurface
Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : WIMSWORLD.local
Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Hybrid
IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : WIMSWORLD.local

Wireless LAN adapter Local Area Connection* 4:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Microsoft Wi-Fi Direct Virtual Adapter #4
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : B6-AE-2B-C1-21-16
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes

Wireless LAN adapter Local Area Connection* 6:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Microsoft Wi-Fi Direct Virtual Adapter #5
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : B6-AE-2B-C1-24-16
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes

Wireless LAN adapter Wi-Fi:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : home
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Marvell AVASTAR Wireless-AC Network Controller
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : B4-AE-2B-C1-20-17
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes

Ethernet adapter Bluetooth Network Connection:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Bluetooth PAN HelpText
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : B4-AE-2B-C1-20-18
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2607:fb90:f2a:1b9b:4d30:692:7441:1cf4(Preferred)
Temporary IPv6 Address. . . . . . : 2607:fb90:f2a:1b9b:2495:be8c:b229:b0b6(Preferred)
Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::4d30:692:7441:1cf4%4(Preferred)
IPv4 Address. . . . . . . . . . . :
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . :
Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Monday, October 28, 2019 3:01:16 PM
Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Tuesday, October 29, 2019 2:46:49 PM
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : fe80::1089:a438:80a9:f8e%4
DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . :
DHCPv6 IAID . . . . . . . . . . . : 95727147
DHCPv6 Client DUID. . . . . . . . : 00-01-00-01-1D-D8-F3-3B-B4-AE-2B-C1-20-17
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : fe80::1089:a438:80a9:f8e%4
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Enabled

Mon 10/28/2019 15:03:26.55 C:\Users\Wim>

Unfortunately when I connected to my phone from my computer via the personal hotspot, I wasn’t able to get positive IPv6 results. Obviously the hotspot was working since I was able to get to the test site via IPv4 without issues.

2019-10-28 (1)

I’d read “RIPE NIC: ‘In Five Weeks We’ll Run Out of IPv4 Internet Addresses’ “ earlier today and have always been interested in understanding more of the nuances of using IPv6 compared to IPv4. Getting Ready for IPv4 Run-out has more information on how they are allocating IPv4 addresses..



Access Windows share from Raspberry Pi

I have a shared directory from my windows server that I’d like to read and write from my Raspberry Pi. I want the share to be automatically available on my Raspberry Pi whenever both the Raspberry and the Windows server are running, but I don’t want the system to spend too much time hung up if the windows server is not available. My easy solution is below.

My Windows servername is Acid. The share I want to connect to is Web. The IP address of the server is

sudo echo Acid>>/etc/hosts
sudo mkdir --parents /media/acid/web
sudo echo username=WindowsUsername >/etc/wimsworld.smb.credentials
sudo echo password=WindowsPassword >>/etc/wimsworld.smb.credentials
sudo echo domain=OptionalDomainName >>/etc/wimsworld.smb.credentials
sudo chmod 0600 /etc/wimsworld.smb.credentials
sudo echo //acid/web /media/acid/web/ cifs credentials=/etc/wimsworld.smb.credentials,noauto,x-systemd.automount,x-systemd.idle-timeout=1min,_netdev 0 0>>/etc/fstab

That series of commands, with the correct details in the credentials, and the system automounter will automatically attempt to connect whenever there’s an access under /media/acid/web and then disconnect again after it’s been idle for over a minute.

I needed to add Acid to my local hosts file because the name doesn’t resolve from the DNS server the raspberry pi is using.

I put the windows Username/Password and Domain in a file with only read/write permissions to root so that it wasn’t clear text in the fstab file for anyone on the machine to read.

I did all of this on a machine that had been built from the Raspian Buster Lite image from 2019-07-10. I didn’t explicitly install the cifs-utils package. It might be needed on other distributions.

Raspberry Pi ZeroW Camera Focus with FFMPEG

I wanted a quick and dirty method to test my camera module installation on my Raspberry Pi ZeroW installation. I don’t have a monitor connected to the Raspberry, and explicitly did not install the desktop version of the operating system. This is especially important because the camera itself may not be properly focused after installation in the case, and the only way to easily focus the camera is with a video stream allowing you to make small adjustments and see them nearly real time.

I’ve used FFMPEG for years as it handles almost any kind of video or audio I can throw at it. I use VLC on my desktop machine for similar reasons.

I did a quick install of ffmpeg on my Pi with the following command, allowing it to install all the requirements, adding up to almost 126 new packages and 56MB that needed to be downloaded and installed.

sudo apt-get install ffmpeg -y

After it finished installing, I was able to run the following command with the address being my desktop computer.

ffmpeg -f video4linux2 -input_format h264 -video_size 1280x720 -framerate 30 -i /dev/video0 -vcodec copy -an -f mpegts udp://

On my desktop computer I ran VLC, under the Media menu, selected Open Network Stream, and opened:


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What I’m doing is to use FFMPEG to pull video from the device and push it using UDP datagrams at my desktop on port 5000. Then VLC opens a port on the local machine at port 5000 to receive the datagrams and it decodes and displays the video. An interesting thing about this method is that I can stop transmitting from the raspberry, then restart it, and VLC will accept the packets since UDP is a connectionless protocol.

What really surprised me was that when I logged in a second time to my Raspberry Pi to view the CPU usage for streaming, it was only running around 12% of the CPU. I was interested in knowing what native formats the camera supported..

ffmpeg -f v4l2 -list_formats all -i /dev/video0
ffmpeg version 4.1.4-1+rpt1~deb10u1 Copyright (c) 2000-2019 the FFmpeg developers
  built with gcc 8 (Raspbian 8.3.0-6+rpi1)
  configuration: --prefix=/usr --extra-version='1+rpt1~deb10u1' --toolchain=hardened --libdir=/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf --incdir=/usr/include/arm-linux-gnueabihf --arch=arm --enable-gpl --disable-stripping --enable-avresample --disable-filter=resample --enable-avisynth --enable-gnutls --enable-ladspa --enable-libaom --enable-libass --enable-libbluray --enable-libbs2b --enable-libcaca --enable-libcdio --enable-libcodec2 --enable-libflite --enable-libfontconfig --enable-libfreetype --enable-libfribidi --enable-libgme --enable-libgsm --enable-libjack --enable-libmp3lame --enable-libmysofa --enable-libopenjpeg --enable-libopenmpt --enable-libopus --enable-libpulse --enable-librsvg --enable-librubberband --enable-libshine --enable-libsnappy --enable-libsoxr --enable-libspeex --enable-libssh --enable-libtheora --enable-libtwolame --enable-libvidstab --enable-libvorbis --enable-libvpx --enable-libwavpack --enable-libwebp --enable-libx265 --enable-libxml2 --enable-libxvid --enable-libzmq --enable-libzvbi --enable-lv2 --enable-omx --enable-openal --enable-opengl --enable-sdl2 --enable-omx-rpi --enable-mmal --enable-libdc1394 --enable-libdrm --enable-libiec61883 --enable-chromaprint --enable-frei0r --enable-libx264 --enable-shared
  libavutil      56. 22.100 / 56. 22.100
  libavcodec     58. 35.100 / 58. 35.100
  libavformat    58. 20.100 / 58. 20.100
  libavdevice    58.  5.100 / 58.  5.100
  libavfilter     7. 40.101 /  7. 40.101
  libavresample   4.  0.  0 /  4.  0.  0
  libswscale      5.  3.100 /  5.  3.100
  libswresample   3.  3.100 /  3.  3.100
  libpostproc    55.  3.100 / 55.  3.100
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :     yuv420p :     Planar YUV 4:2:0 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :     yuyv422 :           YUYV 4:2:2 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :       rgb24 :     24-bit RGB 8-8-8 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Compressed:       mjpeg :            JFIF JPEG : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Compressed:        h264 :                H.264 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Compressed:       mjpeg :          Motion-JPEG : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       : Unsupported :           YVYU 4:2:2 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       : Unsupported :           VYUY 4:2:2 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :     uyvy422 :           UYVY 4:2:2 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :        nv12 :         Y/CbCr 4:2:0 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :       bgr24 :     24-bit BGR 8-8-8 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :     yuv420p :     Planar YVU 4:2:0 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       : Unsupported :         Y/CrCb 4:2:0 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
[video4linux2,v4l2 @ 0x2367e40] Raw       :        bgr0 : 32-bit BGRA/X 8-8-8-8 : {32-3280, 2}x{32-2464, 2}
/dev/video0: Immediate exit requested

That output leads me to believe that the camera module could output either h264 or mjpeg without significant CPU overhead. What it doesn’t do is tell me efficient frame sizes. It seems to say that horizontal and vertical sizes can be anything between 32 to 3280 and 32 to 2464. I know that the specs on the camera say that it will run still frames at the high resolution, but video is significantly less.

Two Video4Linux commands that return interesting and similar results are:

pi@WimPiZeroCamera:~ $ v4l2-ctl --list-formats-ext
        Type: Video Capture

        [0]: 'YU12' (Planar YUV 4:2:0)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [1]: 'YUYV' (YUYV 4:2:2)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [2]: 'RGB3' (24-bit RGB 8-8-8)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [3]: 'JPEG' (JFIF JPEG, compressed)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [4]: 'H264' (H.264, compressed)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [5]: 'MJPG' (Motion-JPEG, compressed)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [6]: 'YVYU' (YVYU 4:2:2)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [7]: 'VYUY' (VYUY 4:2:2)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [8]: 'UYVY' (UYVY 4:2:2)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [9]: 'NV12' (Y/CbCr 4:2:0)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [10]: 'BGR3' (24-bit BGR 8-8-8)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [11]: 'YV12' (Planar YVU 4:2:0)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [12]: 'NV21' (Y/CrCb 4:2:0)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
        [13]: 'BGR4' (32-bit BGRA/X 8-8-8-8)
                Size: Stepwise 32x32 - 3280x2464 with step 2/2
pi@WimPiZeroCamera:~ $ v4l2-ctl -L

User Controls

                     brightness 0x00980900 (int)    : min=0 max=100 step=1 default=50 value=50 flags=slider
                       contrast 0x00980901 (int)    : min=-100 max=100 step=1 default=0 value=0 flags=slider
                     saturation 0x00980902 (int)    : min=-100 max=100 step=1 default=0 value=0 flags=slider
                    red_balance 0x0098090e (int)    : min=1 max=7999 step=1 default=1000 value=1000 flags=slider
                   blue_balance 0x0098090f (int)    : min=1 max=7999 step=1 default=1000 value=1000 flags=slider
                horizontal_flip 0x00980914 (bool)   : default=0 value=0
                  vertical_flip 0x00980915 (bool)   : default=0 value=0
           power_line_frequency 0x00980918 (menu)   : min=0 max=3 default=1 value=1
                                0: Disabled
                                1: 50 Hz
                                2: 60 Hz
                                3: Auto
                      sharpness 0x0098091b (int)    : min=-100 max=100 step=1 default=0 value=0 flags=slider
                  color_effects 0x0098091f (menu)   : min=0 max=15 default=0 value=0
                                0: None
                                1: Black & White
                                2: Sepia
                                3: Negative
                                4: Emboss
                                5: Sketch
                                6: Sky Blue
                                7: Grass Green
                                8: Skin Whiten
                                9: Vivid
                                10: Aqua
                                11: Art Freeze
                                12: Silhouette
                                13: Solarization
                                14: Antique
                                15: Set Cb/Cr
                         rotate 0x00980922 (int)    : min=0 max=360 step=90 default=0 value=0 flags=modify-layout
             color_effects_cbcr 0x0098092a (int)    : min=0 max=65535 step=1 default=32896 value=32896

Codec Controls

             video_bitrate_mode 0x009909ce (menu)   : min=0 max=1 default=0 value=0 flags=update
                                0: Variable Bitrate
                                1: Constant Bitrate
                  video_bitrate 0x009909cf (int)    : min=25000 max=25000000 step=25000 default=10000000 value=10000000
         repeat_sequence_header 0x009909e2 (bool)   : default=0 value=0
            h264_i_frame_period 0x00990a66 (int)    : min=0 max=2147483647 step=1 default=60 value=60
                     h264_level 0x00990a67 (menu)   : min=0 max=11 default=11 value=11
                                0: 1
                                1: 1b
                                2: 1.1
                                3: 1.2
                                4: 1.3
                                5: 2
                                6: 2.1
                                7: 2.2
                                8: 3
                                9: 3.1
                                10: 3.2
                                11: 4
                   h264_profile 0x00990a6b (menu)   : min=0 max=4 default=4 value=4
                                0: Baseline
                                1: Constrained Baseline
                                2: Main
                                4: High

Camera Controls

                  auto_exposure 0x009a0901 (menu)   : min=0 max=3 default=0 value=0
                                0: Auto Mode
                                1: Manual Mode
         exposure_time_absolute 0x009a0902 (int)    : min=1 max=10000 step=1 default=1000 value=1000
     exposure_dynamic_framerate 0x009a0903 (bool)   : default=0 value=0
             auto_exposure_bias 0x009a0913 (intmenu): min=0 max=24 default=12 value=12
                                0: -4000 (0xfffffffffffff060)
                                1: -3667 (0xfffffffffffff1ad)
                                2: -3333 (0xfffffffffffff2fb)
                                3: -3000 (0xfffffffffffff448)
                                4: -2667 (0xfffffffffffff595)
                                5: -2333 (0xfffffffffffff6e3)
                                6: -2000 (0xfffffffffffff830)
                                7: -1667 (0xfffffffffffff97d)
                                8: -1333 (0xfffffffffffffacb)
                                9: -1000 (0xfffffffffffffc18)
                                10: -667 (0xfffffffffffffd65)
                                11: -333 (0xfffffffffffffeb3)
                                12: 0 (0x0)
                                13: 333 (0x14d)
                                14: 667 (0x29b)
                                15: 1000 (0x3e8)
                                16: 1333 (0x535)
                                17: 1667 (0x683)
                                18: 2000 (0x7d0)
                                19: 2333 (0x91d)
                                20: 2667 (0xa6b)
                                21: 3000 (0xbb8)
                                22: 3333 (0xd05)
                                23: 3667 (0xe53)
                                24: 4000 (0xfa0)
      white_balance_auto_preset 0x009a0914 (menu)   : min=0 max=9 default=1 value=1
                                0: Manual
                                1: Auto
                                2: Incandescent
                                3: Fluorescent
                                4: Fluorescent H
                                5: Horizon
                                6: Daylight
                                7: Flash
                                8: Cloudy
                                9: Shade
            image_stabilization 0x009a0916 (bool)   : default=0 value=0
                iso_sensitivity 0x009a0917 (intmenu): min=0 max=4 default=0 value=0
                                0: 0 (0x0)
                                1: 100000 (0x186a0)
                                2: 200000 (0x30d40)
                                3: 400000 (0x61a80)
                                4: 800000 (0xc3500)
           iso_sensitivity_auto 0x009a0918 (menu)   : min=0 max=1 default=1 value=1
                                0: Manual
                                1: Auto
         exposure_metering_mode 0x009a0919 (menu)   : min=0 max=2 default=0 value=0
                                0: Average
                                1: Center Weighted
                                2: Spot
                     scene_mode 0x009a091a (menu)   : min=0 max=13 default=0 value=0
                                0: None
                                8: Night
                                11: Sports

JPEG Compression Controls

            compression_quality 0x009d0903 (int)    : min=1 max=100 step=1 default=30 value=30



Raspberry PiZeroW Camera Module


When you’ve gotten used to Amazon Prime and free shipping, purchasing inexpensive items from other online retailers where the shipping doubles the cost of the item makes it harder to impulse buy items. An item for $5 that costs $7 in shipping often doesn’t get bought. Even a pair of items that cost $16 together that then cost $7 in shipping cause me to delay the purchase.


Because I was purchasing a Raspberry Pi 4 and Raspberry Pi USB-C Power Supply from Sparkfun, I decided to throw in another Pi ZeroW and case for another $16. I then added the Raspberry Pi Camera module because the case has an optional cover enclosing the camera and I wanted to see how it all worked together. I only wish I’d realized that there was a Noir version, because I’ve always wanted to play with infrared photography.

Having recently streamlined the installation of a Pi Zero, I installed the camera and Pi ZeroW in the case, put the configured micro sd card in place, plugged it into my HDMI monitor just to watch it boot and applied power. I never saw anything on the monitor. The Pi ZeroW only has a single LED, which is generally on, but blinks for micro sd activity. Because I’d closed the case, the LED wasn’t visible, and with no monitor activity I was wondering if I’d gotten a bad board.


I opened the case and powered it on again, this time I knew I was seeing LED activity. I did a quick search of my network for new devices and found the new board was responding on ssh and appeared to be working correctly other than no HDMI output.  I was even able to take a snapshot with the camera using the command:

raspistill -o image.jpg

I decided to test booting the device without the camera installed. That worked fine, and I had HDMI output during the boot process. Now I started to wonder if perhaps the power supply I was using didn’t provide enough power. Perhaps the camera and the HDMI device were mutually exclusive in the amount of power required

A lot of searching on the web resulted in nothing about the power required for the camera affecting the HDMI output. I found that I might be able to reduce the power requirements by 25mA by turning off the HDMI, but that the Pi ZeroW was already the lowest power draw available.

I found the tvservice command and the -s option with the camera installed was resulting in a different result from without the camera installed.

pi@WimPiZeroCamera:~ $ sudo /usr/bin/tvservice -s
state 0x40000 [NTSC 4:3], 720x480 @ 60.00Hz, interlaced
pi@WimPiZeroW:~ $ sudo /usr/bin/tvservice -s
state 0xa [HDMI CEA (16) RGB lim 16:9], 1920x1080 @ 60.00Hz, progressive

At least recognizing that difference was progress. For some reason under Raspian Buster the camera module is causing the HDMI output to be different. I found options in that allow me to force the HDMI output to what I want. I changed /boot/config.txt with the following and now I’ve got both camera and video working properly.

# uncomment to force a specific HDMI mode (this will force [HDMI CEA (16) RGB lim 16:9], 1920x1080 @ 60.00Hz, progressive)

I hope that this helps someone else having problems with both camera and hdmi video output. I don’t know if this was specific to Buster since I never tried it under Jessie or Stretch.

USPS Informed Delivery Daily Digest and Netflix DVDs

I use the USPS service Informed Delivery and highly recommend it. I get a daily email from USPS with a scanned picture of most of the mail that will arrive in my mailbox that day. Occasionally the email will say that there were items that could not be scanned, but it’s very useful since I don’t check my mailbox on a daily basis, but don’t want to have important items sit for extended times.

My mailbox is fairly secure, but I’ve also read that Informed Delivery has both good and bad features for people related to mail theft or identity theft.

I’ve been getting Netflix DVDs in the mail since 2000.  I’ve always been slightly fascinated with the efficiencies the post office and Netflix have worked out. If I take a DVD mailer to my local post office here in Seattle, Netflix recognizes it has been returned the next business day. If I drop a DVD at the local post office on Tuesday, Netflix acknowledges it on Wednesday, and I’ve usually got the next DVD delivered Thursday.

Until recently the Netflix DVDs were scanned like all other mail.

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It appears to have changed at the beginning of September. Now there’s a pair of fixed images arriving with a link that will take you directly to Netflix.

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The new behavior isn’t bad since all the Netflix disk scans look very similar, but are interesting to note. I wouldn’t be surprised that the new full color image reduces bandwidth over individual scans along with added benefit of the link to Netflix.

Headless Raspberry Pi Setup

I’ve been using a raspberry pi as a ADSB data feeder for FlightAware and FlightRadar24 for a while and the micro sd card developed a bad sector. That meant I needed to rebuild the installation. I really didn’t want to deal with connecting a keyboard, monitor, and mouse to the Pi for the installation. I found giving me useful information on how to avoid all that. I’m documenting my steps here for my own memory.

Step 1. Download the most recent version of Raspian Buster Lite from

Step 2. Download balenaEtcher portable from

Step 3. Use Etcher to overwrite an SD card with the Raspian image I downloaded earlier.

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Step 4. Eject the flash card and close Etcher, then insert the flash card again, rejecting the option to format the drive.  The flash card is now formatted with multiple partitions, only the first is easily read in windows.

Step 5. create two files on the sd card boot partition. ssh and wpa_supplicant.conf. ssh is an empty file. wpa_supplicant.conf should have the following contents, customized for your WiFi Network:

ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev


Step 6. Eject your micro sd card, put it in the Raspberry Pi and power on the raspberry. You’ll need to wait a couple of minutes for the raspberry to finish several steps before you can connect to it over the network. The Raspberry Pi is expanding the native filesystem to fill the available space on the flash card, then rebooting another time with the new filesystem. You’ll need to figure out what IP address the Raspberry retrieved on your network. If you have access to your router, you may be able to see the attached devices and find the new Raspberry that way. I like the NirSoft Wireless Network Watcher to find what’s on my network

Step 7. Connect to the Raspberry Pi with ssh. You’ll be using the default user and password to connect: “pi” and “raspberry”. I used the new Microsoft Windows Terminal in Windows 10 for this example.

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The Raspberry is up and running now. There are several steps I recommend to do immediately. Use sudo raspi-config to set the user password, the machine hostname, and the timezone you want the machine to use.

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After waiting for the raspberry to reboot and reconnecting via ssh, updating the software to the latest version is the next step.

sudo apt-get update -y
sudo apt-get upgrade -y
sudo shutdown -r now

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Then I install several tools that I like to have.

sudo apt-get install lighttpd mc mrtg lrzsz nmap dnsutils etherwake snmpd snmp arp-scan shairport-sync -y

My next steps are to get PiAware and FlightRadar up and running.

Annoying Flashing High Mount Stop Light on newer cars

I know that to some extent I’m yelling at the cloud. I’ve mostly seen this feature on new Toyotas, but I also recently saw it on a new BMW. 

Old Man Yells at Cloud

The CHMSL flashing feature seems to happen when a person first applies the brakes after a period of not using them. It blinks the lamp three times before leaving them on constantly. This feature might be useful when traveling at highway speeds and it’s been a long time since the person has put their foot on the brake, but when traveling in city traffic it seems that the light is just strobing constantly. With modern LEDs there is no warm up time, so it’s like a red strobe light is going off at eye level.

The last update I found on Wikipedia said that the lights were generally not permitted to flash, with a couple of linked rulings from 2010.

My searching for details found various forum questions and answers, including how to add blinkers as after market options, but no details as to where the rules may have changed, or if it’ll be a new requirement going forward.

I certainly hope that it’s a temporary trend that goes away.

TaoTronics Bluetooth Transmitter connected to my Samsung Soundbar

A couple of years ago I bought a discount sound bar to use as my computer speaker. I’ve been really happy with the sound quality. It’s connected via an optical cable to my computer and has a separate subwoofer.

This summer I moved into a new apartment, and during the last month I’ve run into a problem. One of my neighbors seems to be connecting to my soundbar via Bluetooth.

By watching the display I was able to at least learn what brand device was connecting. I still don’t know the exact model name. shows how to reset the device itself. Unfortunately my soundbar doesn’t have a way of setting the Bluetooth pairing code, or resetting the handshake with any devices that may want to connect with it, or fully disabling Bluetooth.

When I first noticed the problem, the sound bar was in a mode that would let Bluetooth turn on the sound bar, which was extremely frustrating when I was nearly asleep and the soundbar would start playing noises for no reason. That caused me to learn how to disable the Bluetooth power on feature of the sound bar.  Now at least it will only switch to Bluetooth when I’m actually using the soundbar for computer output.

The TaoTronics devices seem to be able to connect to multiple devices at the same time. I’m guessing that my neighbor has no idea that they are connecting to a second device at all. Obviously it’s built to make connecting to devices as easy as possible.

If anyone has suggestions on how to reject an already paired device from Bluetooth, I’d love to see it in the comments. I’m willing to use one of my Raspberry Pi devices that supports Bluetooth to see if there’s a way to send an interrupt signal.

Part 4 of ROAV Dash Cam C1 Pro

I’d figured out that a 128 GB micro sd card would yield about 16 hours of video on the ROAV Dashcam which was good enough that I could make most of my daily long drives without overwriting anything.


I had a PNY 128 GB drive that I’d been using in my GoPro so I put it into the ROAV Dashcam. The ROAV requires the card be formatted as FAT32 and not the newer exFAT, but the dashcam was able to do the formatting.

After a couple of months of use, I got a strange error on the ROAV saying that the memry card was corrupted and it needed reformatting. Before I did that, I put the card into my computer and tried to copy all the data off it. I ran into an issue with some files being corrupted, and then found I was not able to reformat the card in the computer, as it was somehow being reported as read only.

Because there is no physical write protect slider on a micro SD card, I fired up diskpart and issued the commands that should clear the write protect status on a drive.

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It appeared to work, but then checking the status after issuing the command attributes clear disk readonly showed that no changes had really happened.

I’d been frustrated trying to figure this out for the past week. Then I came across an article in comp.risks that described exactly this sort of issue.

Micro SD cards silently switching to read-only when they’re “too old”

Mon, 16 Jul 2018 23:38:44 +0200

The 64G Patriot micro SD I had been using in my cell phone from mid 2014
just decided to turn itself into a read-only memory card.  From what I read,
it most likely reached its maximum number of uses, as it happens at least
with some Samsung cards too.  It would be to protect the card from losing
all its data, after its cells were erased "too many times" (limit number
depending on the card, and appearing to be in the order of 10-100k).  And
according to Internet forums, and card reviews on Amazon, it looks like it's
getting more and more common!

A very bad point is that there were no error messages at all.  I added music
files before a trip, but I had none of the new files available later so at
first I thought I didn't do it correctly (even if the transfer was fine, it
could for example have been to my card backup on an hard drive instead of
going to the actual card).  Then, despite the pictures still being taken
correctly by my phone (browsing was OK, able to delete the bad ones...), I
lost all of the new ones when my phone rebooted. So they were only in a
cache memory somewhere, but nowhere on the SD card (not found by deep
recovery tools either).  More fun, the older ones I deleted came back during
the same reboot...

I understand it would be bothering to have an error message at each card
access, but at least I would have known to change the card and would not
have lost 3 days of pictures!  So beware...

I’ve written low level code dealing with flash memory in the past, so I understand that there are only so many rewrite times each sector can handle. I’m also familiar with the differences in file systems between FAT32, exFAT and NTFS. I don’t believe MicroSD cards have any sort of wear leveling algorithms in them that a full fledged SSD has between the flash and the controller. The fact that ROAV puts their constantly changing data two levels deep in the directory structure at least means the data for the root directory isn’t the constantly erased and overwritten sector, but it does mean that the directory structure is getting re-written each time a new file is created. They probably aren’t writing the directory data to a new sector each time, but just overwriting the old location, possibly accelerating the death of the microsd card. because the cluster size on a 128GB Fat32 partition is fairly large, at least 32KB, it holds a lot of directory entries in a single sector.

I had a 200 GB card that I thought I’d replace the failed drive with. The ROAV attempted to format it but reported that it couldn’t. I’m thinking that they simply cannot handle a drive bigger than 128 GB.


Since I had a second 128GB card, I put it into the dashcam. I’ll be interested in seeing how long it takes for it to report as non-functional.